Drinking water reservoirs typically face many challenges that make purification more difficult and expensive including, high levels of TOC, metals such as manganese and iron, bacteria including pathogens, algae, and toxic Cyanobacteria.
There are basically two root causes of these problems:
- Stratification and Deoxygenation: Deep reservoirs that become stratified experience excessive algae levels in the upper layers of the water and deoxygenation in lower levels. Drawing water from the upper levels clogs up filters and requires an increased level of chemical treatment. Water drawn from lower levels has organoleptic (taste, odor & color) problems due to geosmins, MIBs, hydrogen sulfide, high levels of metal ions, etc.
- CyanoHAB blooms that result in toxins in treated water that cannot be eliminated by treatment resulting in emergency “do not drink” warnings being issued.